Posts Tagged ‘Technology’

Auto sort results of a Google Form so newest responses are on top!

If you use Google forms to collect data of a long period of time you may want the newest results to post to the top of the spreadsheet. For example, I use a form as a way to track books that kids borrow, I’d rather have the newest book to be borrowed appear at the top of the list.

Here is one way you can do this.

  1. On the bottom left of the sheet click the + to create another sheet
  2. In cell A1 paste the following formula:
    1. =sort('Form Responses 1'!A:H, 1, False)
  3. You may want to double click the title of the new sheet (Which will be “Copy of Form Responses 1” and change it to something more descriptive “Sorted” is what I chose.


Remember, this new sheet, “Sorted,” is mirroring the “Form Responses” sheet, so any changes you make to the content will show up on the “Sorted” sheet.


Staying Organized using Google Apps for Ed. in the classroom

(Scroll to the bottom to skip to the video)

I was recently asked (twice in the same week) to share how I organize student work shared with me via Google Apps for Education. At nErDcamp Northern New England I attended a session on using Google Apps to give feedback to students (See the session notes here) and shared how I organize all the documents that students share with me.

-A side note: As an 8th grade teacher in Maine, each of my students has a MacBook Air to use. We are also a Google Apps for Education (GAFE) District which has allowed me to be a mostly paperless classroom.

When I began using GAFE in the classroom the document list was much easier to navigate, but when the format changed I knew that I had to as well.

I always have students make two folders – an “LA” folder and a “LA Pass in” folder, they share the “LA pass in” folder with me and put it in folder inside the LA folder. This serves a couple of purposes: 1. It provides students with some structure for their own files (I actually lead them through this process for each of their classes). 2. It provides an easy way to share and see what is shared with me – after the folder is shared with me, EVERYTHING they put in there becomes shared with me.

–Another side note: I have strict naming protocols, EVERY DOCUMENT (and folder) must follow this format: [Last name, First initial NAME OF ASSIGNMENT]. I don’t look at anything named “untitled document”.

When an assignment is ready to be passed in they fill out a form I create using GAFE. It asks for their Name (a separate question for last and first), class section, and a link to their shared document. Now, I often will include other items – a question that forces them to go through a formatting checklist, a reminder to put the assignment into their “LA Pass in” folder. I have recently began including a grid question that recreates the rubric so they can self evaluate on the assignment and I also include questions that make them reflect on the process of the assignment.

The student accounts (and so the account I use to interact with them) are managed and I am unable to share the exact forms I use with students but here is a link to a PDF of the form students used to submit the final draft of their poetry essay.

The brilliance of using a form to collect student work like this is that I then end up with a spreadsheet with a link to the assignment that I can sort by last name, class section, or by how they scored themselves.

Watch the video below to see the form, the spreadsheet it creates, and how I use it.

G+, Facebook, and Twitter – In one place

This find just changed the G+ game. . .

I came across a Google Chrome extension that does exactly what I’ve been looking for. It allows you to post from G+ (which is open to all to join now) and have it post on Twitter and on Facebook. Voila! It also pulls feeds from both of those services into your G+ stream. So in your new stream you will have Facebook, Twitter, and G+ posts – that you can interact with!

This page gives you a very simple graphic, and links to the extension and T and FB, showing how to install this.

When you first install the extension It puts a FB and Twitter icon up in the google bar (you know where it says; G+, Gmail, Calendar etc. See the screen shot below)  and you click them to sign into that service. I had to click each icon and sign in 4-5 times before it actually signed in.

Then when you are ready to post, you can choose to only post to G+, or only to G+ and Twitter, or only to G+ and Facebook. Bear in mind that when it posts to twitter it only takes the first 140 characters. When you are posting it does give you a character count so you can put the important stuff first or truncate it to fit.

Now when you click on  you will see your G+ friends, Facebook friends, and Twitter friends musings all in one place! AND you can post comments on the posts you see. I can comment on a FB post, or reply to a Tweet – right from G+.

When I first opened my G+ stream I was a little overwhelmed – that was a lot to sift through. Then I realized that Facebook and Twitter icons appeared in the list on the left under my “sparks”. But how to see just my G+ stream? Easy, I created a new circle called “G+” (you could call it “everyone” or whatever you want) and put everyone in it, then I can click on my new circle and see just G+ posts.

Or Clicking on the icon opens a menu: So you don’t have to have everything in your G+ stream if you don’t want.

So jump onto your Chrome browser (get it here), head over to sign up, check it out, add me: to G+, get the extension, sign into your other social media and enjoy!

Day five – successes and ‘other’

Today was a learning experience.

I learned that, despite saying he has trouble with sustained writing, Adam is able to write for ten minutes straight. We did some more creative writing today, the prompts were:

  1. If I could have one superpower it would be. . . because. . .
  2. “A shadow crossed in front of the sun, I looked up and saw. . . “
  3. Which are better, ninjas or pirates? Why?
  4. Free write

I wrote about number three, then moved on to number one. At the end of ten minutes (during which we both wrote the entire time) I stopped and was about to tell Adam to find a place to finish when he looked up and started to talk about what he wrote. I asked if he was finished and he said “No, just one more!” He wanted to write!! He was into the topic and was enjoying himself. Hooray! This is my favorite thing: the fact that Adam told me that he can’t write for a long time but is still at it after ten minutes. As we go on I’m seeing just how much motivation plays in his image of himself as a writer/reader. He has the skills, but thinks of himself in terms of being alliterate – he doesn’t want to use them. As a teacher it gives me a great sense of accomplishment and satisfaction to find ways to inspire students to want to use the skills they have and want to improve them (though let’s just start with wanting to use them). I will make sure that Adam is given this opportunity for writing each day. It is certainly a positive writing experience for him (and me!).

I also learned that I didn’t have a clear purpose in mind when I decided to incorporate poetry. That part of the day fell kind of flat. We talked about what makes a poem a poem (Adam has a pretty good handle on that) and I showed him a poem in prose format and then in it’s intended format, he said that the poetry format was better which led to an interesting discussion about why that was so. Then we watched some YouTube videos of Shel Silverstein poems. Then we watched a video of “The Giving Tree” and on the way down at the end of the day talked about what it ‘meant’, he had a good interpretation (giving of yourself is good but you can give too much). So we totally got away from poetry. As soon as I started the conversation about poetry I knew that my plan was terrible and started thinking of ways to make it better (didn’t really come up with anything obviously) or get away from it (thank you YouTube). I know that poetry isn’t my strength, I teach it, and I tell my students that it isn’t my favorite. I don’t really know why I thought it was a good idea. Well, that’s not completely true. I’ve read about, and seen on her DVD, how Penny Kittle uses poetry to open class and get students thinking like writers – I want to do that in my class next year. I really need to think about what that looks like more and be more aware of the goal for the day in the selection of the poem(s) I choose to use. Even though this part of my plan stunk, it wasn’t a waste. I learned that Adam has some knowledge of poetry, and literary devices (personification within The Giving Tree). I learned that if I am going to use poetry, it will require more thought and planning then if I stick to prose. I also learned that I want to try this again, this is a perfect opportunity to test out what I want to try next year.

Adam decided to create a  fake Facebook wall for Brian from Gary Paulson’s Hatchet. I showed him the site, and let him go to it. He is really into it. This is a great way to create a character study, check for comprehension, and motivate Adam to read. After a comment that led me to believe he might work on this at home, I told him that we’ll I don’t expect him to work on this on his own and he replied, “But it’s so fun”. Hooked! I’m pretty sure that I’ve found some good motivation for Adam to continue to read Hatchet. I know that I’m interested in technology and that 13 year-olds are almost constantly plugged in somehow, that is why I try to use technology as a teaching tool when I can. It provides a great way to engage the learner, as I saw with Adam today. Looking back on the other choices I’m glad he picked this one. It will be the easiest to share with his family and with my learning community at USM. More and more I’m realizing that this is an important part of how I see my role as a teacher, student, and professional. Students don’t always want to show their parents their work, having a project they are really engaged in or a project that is easily shared with the parents digitally, is a great way to approach this issue. As a student I want to see what others are doing, show them what I’m doing and see how I can help and get help. As a professional I want to create resources for others to take and make work for their own use. My teacher coat of arms included the word “Collaboration” and I’m learning that I really picked a word that reflects my beliefs in so many ways.

Interpretive Review of Electronic Literacy and Hybrid Texts

EDU 600 Research Methods and Techniques University of Southern Maine Summer 2010

Introduction: The way that students, and many others, interact with information and the world has changed significantly in recent years, and is continuing to change. Though perhaps “evolve” is a better term, I use the word interact purposefully, with blogs, wikis, and other collaborative tools information is no longer static, sitting in a textbook. Information is presented differently now and our students navigate this world of hybrid texts, texts that consist of more than one media, throughout their day, everyday. I’ve always been interested in technology, photography, and as a teacher – getting students to enjoy reading and learn and practice literacy skills. Student engagement is a big part of completing this last task. I think that, through technology, images and words acting together address the new literacies students need to be taught.

Research on electronic literacy and hybrid texts really focuses on the change happening in how information is presented and interacted with by its audience. I think the changes that are happening are fascinating, the research explores how these changes can, and should, be brought into the classroom and the effect it has on students. I want to know more about this and I want to incorporate this into my class. I had mixed success in finding primary source articles that provided the details I needed. The connection of the two topics is the influence of technology on hybrid texts and how electronic and language arts literacies are supplemented or supplement mix media texts.

Design and Purpose: All six of these studies are qualitative. This was not by design, it simply worked out that the article titles that peaked my interest all turned out to be qualitative. Two studies were conducted using case studies, four incorporated ethnographic designs. With the exception of Barone and Wright’s article each study was designed appropriately. I think that a case study of one student along side the ethnography would have provided richer results that would contribute to the articles validity more than the hypothetical day in the life of a fictional student.

Each article had either electronic literacy or hybrid texts, or both, as their focus. The overlap in topics is really only obvious when you look at the collection of articles as a whole and pay attention to the details that allude to electronic literacy or hybrid texts in articles focusing on the alternative topic.

All sought to ground themselves in previous research. Norton references Kay Haugaard at the outset of her article and comes back to that name in the conclusion. Tan and Guo steep their introduction in references to previous research. Rowsell and Burke mention a handful of studies, as does Ranker. Looking at the Matrix (appendix 1) it is clear that the more the researcher grounds themselves in previous work the higher the overall quality of the article.

Sampling: Three of the studies provide no clear count of participants. Authors, Ranker, Barone & Wright, and Tan & Guo study classes (a first grade class, a fourth grade class, and two classes of 14 year-olds, respectively), the number of students in the class(es) under study is not provided. I found this surprising. If I found this in only one article I might consider it to be an accidental oversight, but when half of the studies I’m reviewing leave out this information it points towards more purposeful writing/reporting strategies. Two of the three were convenience samples, which serve to compound the distrust over the sampling measures. These samples, particularly those of Barone and Wright (second authors class), and Ranker (the sample’s teacher was the author’s student) were studies that did not include the number of participants – this caused some highbrow rising as I was completing the Matrix.

The sampling for Norton’s study of elementary school students who read Archie comics had the strongest sampling. Volunteers were taken and this sampling led to thirty-four participants. Rowsell and Burke’s case studies (2009) sample was interesting. The two teens, 13yr female & 14yr male, are from different countries (Canada & United States) and had different social roles. She is into sports, is popular, and receives A’s. He receives special services, is more of “a loner in the class” (p 110). At first I didn’t think this was a very good sample, but when I saw the results I realized how appropriate that sample was.

Data Collection: It should be no surprise that interviews and observations were used in all these studies. I think anecdotal evidence and first hand accounts can be very persuasive. It is interesting how the different types of research work to persuade their audience.

Norton’s study on Archie comics (2003) used only questionnaires and interviews. An analysis of the comics themselves might strengthen claims that students are inferring, understanding “irony, puns, and plays on words” (p 142). Looking at how the language and the images support this complex thinking would support her research question.

One study stands out in this area, Tan & Guo’s 2009 study; observational field notes, extensive (10hr) teacher interview, many hours of video of classroom observations transcriptions, and video recordings with transcripts prove to be the most comprehensive data collection methods present within the six articles. This article had the clearest delineation of data collection; it was thorough and concise. The methods themselves were thorough as well; this study had the most data collection methods in use and it also rated highest in over all quality.

Gainer and Rowsell & Burke also should be noted as they analyzed content and documents during data collection.

Data Analysis & Results: Overall, all of these six articles did a great job providing thick description. I personally place high value on having the exact words from a participant as well as the author’s interpretation. The sad news is that with the exception of one, thick description is all they used to demonstrate interpretative validity. This is the one column that had the most impact on me. Seeing that single method listed over and over, and the overall quality score right next to it, really showed me that when I’m looking at research articles to not let quotes be my single knee jerk reaction to a article’s validity. Tan and Guo’s article (2009) added coding and triangulation to their extensive interview quotations.

With all of the faults I’ve found in these articles I can say that the results did not stray from the data. As previously mentioned, Rowsell and Burke’s study had some fascinating results that changed my mind about the appropriateness of their sample size (two). They found that both students were engaging at similar depths in similar ways with their respective online texts. This is interesting when you look at how different their success’ are with print text. This tells me that engagement and hybrid texts, or rather the relationship between these two can lead to success.

Quality of Studies: I find myself rating quality on the half marks. Making the range: Low, Low/Medium, Medium, Medium/High, and High. There was a wide range of quality scores within these six articles; two rated Low/Medium, one was Medium, two earned Medium/High marks, and the last fell on the line between Medium/High and High.

I really noticed the quality differences in the articles, but the area that had consistent low scores was in interpretive validity. Only one article stood out in this – it also earned the highest overall rating. This was a wake up call, as I mentioned before. My focus for 8th grade writers is providing evidence in their academic writing. I forgot that, as a reader, I must look for evidence that shows the researchers findings to be valid. This is an important lesson that this class and assignment taught me.

Summary: Had I to go back choose articles again, I would be more particular about the quality of my choices. Of course, I’m only now able to make those choices based on quality now that I’ve taken this class – a paradox I guess. While writing this review, I found that many of articles were not very solid examples to use. This makes comparing and contrasting a bit tedious to read. Luckily, in each category, there was one that shone, as either a good or bad example and made for something to discuss. The content of the articles was very interesting. It combines my love of my job and content area with my passion for technology. Many of the articles provided examples of practical classroom practices that any teacher could put into operation, such as using comic books to teach inference skills, character development, and the list of web-based resources found in table one (p. 299) of Barone and Wright’s article (2008).

Some of the articles did leave me with questions.

Barone and Wright dropped this bombshell on me: “In 2005, approximately 95% of K-12 classrooms in the United states had Internet access[,] . . . 80% of kindergartners use computers . . . However, the average of U.S. students’ use of computers in school was 12 minutes per week” (p. 292). This caused my jaw to drop and really hooked me into learning more about electronic literacy and best practices surrounding it. I find that 12 min/week is an abysmal average and really just don’t understand how that can be.

I never understood why Norton’s focus was on Archie comics (2003), and not a more contemporary comic – this was never explained (the number of kids who read it was also surprising but I didn’t expect Norton to have a reason for that). Norton also cited that “Ivey and Broaddus (2001, p. 368) . . . found that middle school students ranked their classrooms as ‘one of the least likely places’ to find the texts they want to read.” (p. 145). This is sad and just supports what most English teachers [should] know: Choice in reading material is very important; it goes back to the power of engagement.

My interests, personal and professional, made reading these articles enjoyable and professional development at the same time. My goal now is to bring what I’ve learned from this research and see what results I can get in my classroom, and be a model to others in the area of electronic literacy.


Barone, D., & Wright, T. (2008). Literacy Instruction With Digital and Media Technologies. Reading Teacher, 62(4), 292-303.

Gainer, J.S. (2010). Critical media literacy in middle school: exploring the politics of representation. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(5), 364–3 73.

McVicker, C. (2007). Comic strips as a text structure for learning to read. The Reading Teacher, 61(1), 85-88.

Norton, B. (2003). The motivating power of comic books: Insights from Archie comic readers. Reading Teacher, 57(2), 140-147.

Ranker, J. (2007). Using comic books as read-alouds: insights on reading instruction from an English as a second language classroom. Reading Teacher, 61(4), 296-305.

Rowsell, J., & Burke, A. (2009). Reading by design: two case studies of digital reading practices. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(2), 106-118.

Appendix: Matrix of Articles – below.

First day of 2010-11 school year

It is rapidly approaching. I see tweets and blog posts everywhere about teachers and students who have already begun the school year. This will be my third year as an 8th grade English teacher (I’m trying to shift the vocabulary at my middle school to call it English in 8th grade instead of Language Arts, even though LA is a more appropriate title -I haven’t told anyone about my plans yet. More on this as it develops) and I am PSYCHED!  As a third year teacher I feel pretty confident in the content and can really work on my delivery and integration of technology, especially collaborative technology.

The word in the district is that we’ll be set up with Google for Education this year – I’ve been hoping, mentioning this since I started, along with some of my colleagues. This means Google docs – can I go paperless this year? I think that I’ll certainly use less. The blog helped with this goal and Google apps will further it. It will also fit nicely in with my belief that learning is collaborative – real-time collaboration is so effective. The class wiki is good (I use Wetpaint) but real-time collaboration can be tricky when people start saving and exiting the editing tools.

The other exciting thing that is happening in the 8th grade is Expeditionary Learning. You can read this previous entry about how this new model unfolded. We have done the bulk of the planning for a Spring expedition that is modeled after one we saw at King Middle School called Truth and Consequence. The team is on board, the administration is on board, and I’m certain that the students will be on board. I will be blogging about the process once we start in February.

There is also construction going on at the school. We recently changed from a 6-8 school to a 4-8 school and construction should be finished by February break (hey that’s when we’re kicking off our expedition, good unplanned timing!). The hallway to the new addition is going between 8th grade social studies room and 6th grade math room. These two rooms were gutted over the summer. A permanent wall was erected between my room and the SS room where before there was a movable wall. Most of my room is covered in dust and everything is smooshed against the opposite wall. This does have a plus side though, I can put things against this wall now. I think I will change the set up of my room and put the SmartBoard against this new room and make a horseshoe seating arrangement (I didn’t have the space for that before and had seating pods).

I’d love to hear about what you are going to do this year. Trying something new? Changing how you teach a lesson? Let me know!

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The Next Step: Integrating Technology into Every Classroom

I love technology. If there is a button, I will push it; if there is a switch, I will flip it; if there is a cool new gadget, I want to check it out and play with it. Many of our students are the same when it comes to technology. It is interesting to them and a big part of how they communicate in the world; if technology continues to advance and be welcomed into every part of society, it will also be integrated into everything they do as adults, and as teachers we need to make sure they are ready for that.

Bringing technology into the classroom is a logical step for educators to make. Once in the classroom, it can make our teaching more efficient, help us be more organized, let us share amongst ourselves and the world, engage students while they are in school, and provide the skills they will need to succeed when they leave school.

In her 2004 article, The digital whiteboard: A tool in early literacy instruction, Solvie discusses the affects of the use of a digital whiteboard with her first-graders. She found that, while the whiteboard did not “result in a significant improvement over traditional skill instruction, [she] found it to be effective in other ways.” (Solvie, 484). These “other ways” were text coding, following up on previous lessons, appealing to kinesthetic learners through physical manipulation of texts, increasing student engagement, and developing knowledge and vocabulary about the technology. The article ends with a cautionary note: “It’s important to keep the focus . . . not on the tool.” (Solvie, 487), in other words, remember that the digital whiteboard is only the vehicle for delivery, it is content that is important.

Barone and Wright (2008), explore Literacy Instruction With Digital and Media Technologies, and use author Wright’s fourth grade class to demonstrate and discuss the integration of technology into the classroom and the new literacies necessary to address within the classroom. Among these new literacies are “innovative text formats (multiple media of hybrid texts; Lemke, 1998), new reader expectations (reading nonlinearly; Warschauer, 2006), and new activities (website publication; Leu et al., 2004).” (Barone & Wright, 292). The authors created an amalgam of multiple students, whom they call Michael, and trace his actions during his day in Mr. Wright’s class. As in the Solvie (2004) article, technology is seen as a tool, not as the focus. It is important that the integration of technology into routines and lessons is seamless and does not seem forced or contrived just for the sake of using technology. Mr. Wright puts items onto a server that Michael accesses at the beginning of class and will need that day. Michael then engages in a vocabulary warm up in which he creates graphic and textual representations using software that is on his laptop. During reading time, students instant message each other about what they are reading, the class fills out a graphic organizer, and work in centers that often utilize technology. During recess students are allowed to stay in the room and engage in “sending IMs, checking and sending e-mail, and going online to enter kid-friendly virtual worlds” (Barone & Wright, 295), thus giving students who may not have access outside of school the opportunity to use technology in a more casual manner. Mr. Wright differentiates writing instruction through the help of a website that provides articles about a single subject at different reading levels.

The article’s focus then shifts to how to make the transition towards a classroom that seamlessly uses technology, notably gaining support from the administration, securing professional development, and having teachers that believe in this change. The school has a clear goal as well, lower grades begin using technology and each year a new piece is introduced and the other pieces are reinforced.

Gabriel and Gabriel (2010) in their article, Power in Pictures: How a Schoolwide Photo Library Can Build a Community of Readers and Writers, discuss how photographs can be used in a variety of ways to foster student reading and writing. The collection of the photographs provides opportunities for the development of useful technological skills. Using the photos for the creation of hybrid texts (such as “Alphabet books using images from around the building, Biographies of people, animals, or objects around the building, How-to books. . . Genre exercises. . . [and] Compare-and-contrast paragraphs, essays, graphs” (Gabriel and Gabriel, 681)) lends itself to differentiation and scaffolding for ELL students. The digital format allows the products to be published and shared easily. The authenticity of using student-generated photos engages students and provides relevant experiences to create texts around. These hybrid texts are then used as described in work by McVicker (2007) and Norton (2003) that I have written about previously.

September 2008 was my first year of teaching. I created a blog and a WebQuest while student teaching, my portfolio for my exit presentation from the Extended Teacher Education Program at the University of Southern Maine was created digitally in the form of a website (, but I had, and have, no formal instruction in any of the technologies I’ve used or currently use. I spend a substantial amount of time investigating technological opportunities and tools to use in my classroom. I explore the Internet, I speak with colleagues, and I make things up when it’s appropriate, and of course I learn from my mistakes.

So, when the librarian asked me if I wanted a Smart Board the third week of school, I gave him a very excited and emphatic “Yes!”. I spent hours before, during, and after school teaching myself how to use it and coming up with ways to use it in my classroom. I can speak to many of the things that Solvie (2004) writes about in her article as I have experienced what she describes. As soon as students realize that we’re using the Smart Board I have their attention (I emphasis ‘we’ because without it, there isn’t much difference from me writing on the whiteboard). When I model how I mark up a poem with my thoughts, the rhyme scheme, and other poetic devices it does two things: one, I don’t have to carefully erase everything from a dry erase board to start over, I click on another copy of the poem and the next class gets a brand new copy of the poem. The second benefit of this is that it provides me with another way to differentiate between classes; the class that has been struggling with metaphors can focus on that during the lesson. I can then save the modeled work from each class and put it on the website for all students to benefit from. Solvie (2004) also talks about the physical interaction with the board. This kinesthetic element benefits students whose learning style strength this is, and who are able to use that strength the least, by letting them physically interact with texts. Other students benefit from this interaction as well and the class benefits from having everyone engaged and thus effectively becomes the classroom management. Engaged kids do not pose behavior problems.

Solvie’s (2004) article was an introduction to digital whiteboards that spent time on how they work and other rudimentary aspects of the tool and its software. For this reason I found the article to be not as helpful to my own teaching as the other two articles I read. The common cautionary theme between Solvie (2004) and Barone and Wright (2008) to the reader to not make the technology the focus, along with the charge to look and treat technology as a tool to be used with traditional methods was a helpful reminder.

Barone and Wright’s (2008) account of Michael was astonishing and inspirational. One fact that stopped me was one they cited from Wells & Lewis (2006) that read “the average of U.S. students’ use of computers in school [is] 12 minutes per week.” (Barone & Wright, 292), I can only hope that in the four years since that statistic was reported use has gone up. It is mind-blowing that student use of computers per week could measure so dismally low. It does not clarify if this number is K-12 or some section therein. Barone & Wright (2008) note that, while many students have access outside of school to technology, they are not given time during school to use computers. I can conservatively estimate that my students use their laptops 2.5 hours a week, and that is just in my class! Of course it does help that Maine has the Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI) that puts 1:1 laptops in middle schools and has recently expanded to the high school level. To do anything less I think does a disservice to the students and puts them at a disadvantage.

I really appreciated the walk through of a student that demonstrated concrete ways technology can be used in the classroom, as well as the list of websites and other resource that were included by the authors. I would have liked to hear more about how Mr. Wright made this transition himself, how long it took him to reach the point that he is at now, and what specific support and challenges he had from the administration and district.

Photography is a hobby of mine. I started a photography club at my school and I try to bring photographs into lessons whenever appropriate. When I saw the title of Gabriel and Gabriel’s (2010) article, I was excited to find a resource that combined my personal and professional interests. It also relates to the topic of hybrid texts that I wrote about previously using works by McVicker (2007) and Norton (2003). The twist that Gabriel and Gabriel (2010) add is that the photographs are taken by students of subjects they know (school, people, places). This creates motivation and investment in the product that leads to greater engagement in the learning. This engagement leads to a richer learning experience.

My preferred style of teaching is to spend the least amount of time possible talking at the class and the most amount of time possible having the students engaged with the material, each other, and the class. Technology fosters this structural goal for me. I see the role of the teacher as similar to that of a cruise director; they must present material such that the students will get their brain out of its metaphorical seat and participating and engaging the subject matter. A cruise director is not the focus; it is the activity (material/lesson) that everyone is putting their energy into. Technology assists me in leading my students toward more self-directed, exploratory method of learning.

Of the three articles, Solvie (2004) does me the least good, as I am beyond the experience level of her target audience. Gabriel and Gabriel (2010), and Barone and Wright (2008) provided practical ways to further incorporate technology into my class. I starred activities and methods that I could implement in the Fall with my new students. Mr. Wright’s classroom stands as the apotheosis of technology integration for me to strive towards. I will begin directing students to sync their paper agenda books to the Google calendar that is embedded on the class website, which will ensure that everyone is up to date on due dates. The MacBooks that my students are provided with have web cams that we can use to take photographs, many students have digital cameras but this option will level the playing field that we can use to start creating our own photo library that they and future students can use and add to throughout the year.

Technology is a powerful tool the educators have to embrace, as their students already have. If we don’t employ the technology that students use daily and will have to use as they enter society then they will be lacking the knowledge and guidance that it is our job as educators to provide. Each of these articles mention the benefits students receive from exposure to technology in school; they begin to understand how it works (and can troubleshoot how to fix it), they use the vocabulary associated with the different technologies (so they enter the world knowing how to speak intelligently about these tools), and they can use the technology in a variety of ways to produce a variety of things. These are the 21st Century literacies that are crucial for our students to acquire. To make this happen teachers must take and embrace the next step: integrating technology into every classroom.


Barone, D., & Wright, T. (2008). Literacy Instruction With Digital and Media Technologies. Reading Teacher, 62(4), 292-303.

Gabriel, R., & Gabriel, M. (2010). Power in Pictures: How a Schoolwide Photo Library Can Build a Community of Readers and Writers. Reading Teacher, 63(8), 679-682.

McVicker, C. (2007). Comic strips as a text structure for learning to read. The Reading Teacher, 60(1), 85-88.

Norton, B. (2003). The motivating power of comic books: Insights from Archie comic readers. Reading Teacher, 57(2), 140-147.

Solvie, P. (2004). The digital whiteboard: A tool in early literacy instruction. Reading Teacher, 57(5), 484-487.

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